Computer Architecture and Organization (CAO) Notes

Computer Architecture and Organization (CAO) Notes can be downloaded easily without any login or signup.The special in these notes is that these are handwritten notes made by some expert student in simple and easy language covering diagrams and configurations. These notes cover the whole syllabus of the (4th Semester) Students with Computer Science and Electronics and Communication Stream. These notes can also be read thoroughly for having knowledge related to the design of computer organization.

The notes are divided into eight different units. The particular units covers following topics:- 

Unit 1:

Basic Structure of Computers: Computer Types, Functional Units, Basic Operational Concepts, Bus Structures, Performance – Processor Clock, Basic Performance Equation, Clock Rate, Performance Measurement, Historical Perspective.
Machine Instructions and Programs: Numbers, Arithmetic Operations and Characters, Memory Location and Addresses, Memory Operations,  Instructions and Instruction Sequencing.

Unit 2:

Machine Instructions and Programs contd.: Addressing Modes, Assembly Language, Basic Input, and Output Operations, Stacks and Queues, Subroutines, Additional Instructions, Encoding of Machine Instructions.

Unit 3 & 4:

Input/output Organization: Accessing I/O Devices, Interrupts – Interrupt Hardware, Enabling and Disabling Interrupts, Handling Multiple Devices, Controlling Device Requests, Exceptions, Direct Memory Access, Buses.  Interface Circuits, Standard I/O Interfaces – PCI Bus, SCSI Bus, USB.

Unit 5:

Memory System: Basic Concepts, Semiconductor RAM Memories, Read Only Memories, Speed, Size, and Cost Cache Memories – Mapping Functions, Replacement Algorithms, Performance Considerations, Virtual Memories, Secondary Storage.

UNIT – 6

Arithmetic: Addition and Subtraction of Signed Numbers, Design of Fast Adders, Multiplication of Positive Numbers, Signed Operand Multiplication, Fast Multiplication, Integer Division, Floating-point Numbers, and Operations.

UNIT – 7

Basic Processing Unit: Some Fundamental Concepts, Execution of a Complete Instruction, Multiple Bus Organization, Hard-wired Control, Microprogrammed Control.

UNIT – 8

Multicores, Multiprocessors, and Clusters: Performance, The Power Wall, The Switch from Uniprocessors to Multiprocessors, Amdahl’s Law, Shared Memory Multiprocessors, Clusters and other Message-Passing Multiprocessors, Hardware Multithreading, SISD, IMD, SIMD, SPMD, and Vector.

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